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Reinjection of ex vivo-expanded primate bone marrow mononuclear cells strongly reduces radiation-induced aplasia

Bertho JM, Frick J, Demarquay C, Lauby A, Mathieu E, Dudoignon N, Jacquet N, Trompier F, Chapel A, Joubert C, Lopez M, Aigueperse J, Gorin NC, Gourmelon P, Thierry D.
J Hematother Stem Cell Res 2002 11(3):549-64

Summary

To assess the therapeutic efficacy of ex vivo-expanded hematopoietic cells in the treatment of radiation-induced pancytopenia, we have set up a non-human primate model. Two ex vivo expansion protocols for bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) were studied. The first consisted of a 7-day culture in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF), Flt3-ligand, thrombopoietin (TPO), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and IL-6, which induced preferentially the expansion of immature hematopoietic cells [3.1 +/- 1.4, 10.0 +/- 5.1, 2.2 +/- 1.9, and 1.0 +/- 0.3-fold expansion for mononuclear cells (MNC), colony-forming units-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), burst-forming units erythroid (BFU-E), and long-term culture initiating cells (LTC-IC) respectively]. The second was with the same cytokine combination supplemented with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) with an increased duration of culture up to 14 days and induced mainly the production of mature hematopoietic cells (17.2 +/- 11.7-fold expansion for MNC and no detectable BFU-E and LTC-IC), although expansion of CFU-GM (13.7 +/- 18.8-fold) and CD34+ cells (5.2 +/- 1.4-fold) was also observed. Results showed the presence of mesenchymal stem cells and cells from the lymphoid and the megakaryocytic lineages in 7-day expanded BMMNC. To test the ability of ex vivo-expanded cells to sustain hematopoietic recovery after radiation-induced aplasia, non-human primates were irradiated at a supralethal dose of 8 Gy and received the product of either 7-day (24 h after irradiation) or 14-day (8 days after irradiation) expanded BMMNC. Results showed that the 7-day ex vivo-expanded BMMNC shortened the period and the severity of pancytopenia and improved hematopoietic recovery, while the 14 day ex vivo-expanded BMMNC mainly produced a transfusion-like effect during 8 days, followed by hematopoietic recovery. These results suggest that ex vivo expanded BMMNC during 7 days may be highly efficient in the treatment of radiation-induced aplasia.

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