Simplified modeling of a PWR reactor pressure vessel lower head failure in the case of a severe accident
V. Koundy, M. Durin, L. Nicolas, A. Combescure,
Nuclear Engineering and Design 235 (2005), pp 835-843,
Rapport DSR 52
In order to characterize the timing, mode and size of a possible lower head failure (LHF) of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in the event of a core meltdown accident, several large-scale LHF experiments were performed under the USNRC/SNL LHF program. The experiments examined lower head failure at high pressures (10 MPa in most cases) and with small throughwall temperature differentials. Another USNRC/SNL LHF program, called the OLHF program, has been undertaken in the framework of an OECD project. This was an extension of the first program and dealt with low and moderate pressures (2 MPa to 5 MPa) but with large throughwall temperature differentials. These experiments should lead to a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of the reactor vessel lower head, which is of importance both in severe accident assessment and the definition of accident mitigation strategies. A well-characterized failure of the lower head is of prime importance for the evaluation of the quantity of core material that can escape into the containment, since this defines the initial conditions for all external-vessel events. The large quantity of escaping corium may lead to direct heating of the containment. This is an important severe accident issue because of its potential to cause early containment failure. The experiments also provide data for model development and validation. For our part, as one of the program partners, numerical modeling was performed to simulate these experiments. This paper presents a detailed description of three of our numerical models used for the simulation. The first model is a simplified semi-analytical approach based on the theory of a spherical shell subjected to internal pressure. The two other methods deal with 2D finite element (2D-FE) modeling: one combines the Norton-Bailey creep law with a damage model proposed by Lemaitre-Chaboche while the other uses only a creep failure criterion but takes into account thermo-metallurgical phase transformations. One of the objectives of the simulation is the development of a simplified and valid analytical code that can be implemented in integral severe accident computer codes. The numerical results are consistent with the experimental measurements. The effect on the numerical results of the multiphase transformation of the shell material and of the two failure criteria used, one involving necking (Considère's criterion) and the other involving creep damage (Lemaitre-Chaboche), is discussed.