Humans are continuously exposed to neurotoxic compounds in the environment. The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds and modifications in its growth could lead to disorders in adulthood. Uranium (U) is an environmental heavy metal and induces behavioral disorders aswell as affects neurochemistry. The aim of my thesis was to investigate whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neurogenesis processes, which are implicated in brain development and in synaptic plasticity in adults. While DU increased cell proliferation in the hippocampal neuroepithelium and decreased cell death at prenatal stages, DU lead to opposite effects in the dentate gyrus at postnatal stages. Moreover, DU had an inhibitory effect on the transition toward neuronal differentiation pathway during development. At adult stage, DU induced a decrease in neuronal differentiation but has no impact in cell proliferation. Finally, DU exposure during brain development caused depressive like behavior at late postnatal and adult stage, and decreased spatialmemory at adult stage. Consequently, DU exposure during brain development caused modification in neurogenesis processes associated to cognitive and emotional disorders at adult age. U could present a threat to human health, especially in pregnant women and children.