Spent Fuel Sabotage Aerosol Ratio Program and Surrogate Material Test Results
Bruno Autrusson, Olivier Loiseau, 45th Annual Meeting Institute of Nuclear Materials Management, July 18-22, 2004, Orlando (Floride)
We provide a detailed overview of an ongoing test program that is developing relevant aerosol particle data for some sabotage scenarios on spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The data being measured, and presented herein, support quantifications of aerosolized materials produced from actual spent fuel and surrogate material test rods, resulting from an impact by a high energy density device, HEDD. The need for this technical information has been strongly supported and is coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC. In the U.S., Sandia National Laboratories has the lead test role for conducting this program, with support provided by both the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The WGSTSC partners need this research to better understand potential impacts from sabotage of nuclear material shipments and storage casks, and to better protect people and the environment against subsequent, potential radiological hazards. We provide a detailed description of the multi-year, multi-phase test design, a description of all explosive containment and aerosol collection test components, and a summary of all respirable, aerosol test results plus observations for the recently completed, surrogate material Phase 2 tests. These Phase 2 tests used non-radioactive cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets; limited test results on non-radioactive German high level waste glass rodlets containing surrogate fission product dopants are also included. The data obtained include HEDD-impact-produced aerosol particle amounts, size distributions, and observed enhanced sorption of volatile fission product (surrogate) nuclides onto specific respirable particle size fractions. Advanced plans for recently initiated tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets (both high- and low-burnup) will also be described. The ratio of the aerosol and respirable particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials (depleted uranium oxide), i.e., the spent fuel ratio, SFR, will be determined under closely matched test conditions.