The precise measurement of the radioactivity in the filters remains a major metrological difficulty raised by the diversity of the factors being able to degrade the energy of the particles α emitted by the collected radionuclides. Preliminary studies show that, even in the successful outcome of the nuclear measurement of filters with a weak surface deposit, in-depth penetration of the aerosols in the filter medium can result in underestimating the radioactivity deposited of a factor 2 (Grivaud, 2004). Indeed, the aerosols sampled in the installations or the environment will settle and be distributed on the surface of the medium like in-depth. The process of attenuation of the kinetic energy of the particles α emitted is done throughout their path in the matter to the detector. An experimental approach, based on a method of peeling of the filters, makes it possible to quantify the loss of energy of a radiation according to the penetration of the radioactive aerosol in a filter medium. Moreover, in order to validate these various calculations, an experimental approach was developed to determine the evolution of the activity according to the penetration depth of the aerosols in the filter. The protocol of tests allowing the exhaustive study of the penetration of the aerosols in different media as well as associated nuclear measurement are presented.