Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal found in the environment. Due to its natural presence and to civil and militaries activities, general population can be exposed to U throughout drinking water or contaminated food. The pro/anti-oxidative system is a defense system which is often implicated in case of acute exposure to U. The aim of this thesis is to study the role of the pro/anti-oxidative system after chronic exposure to U in the liver and the kidney. After chronic exposure of rats to different U concentrations through drinking water, this radionuclide accumulated in the organs in proportion to U intake ; until 6 μg.g-1 of kidney tissues. U is localized in nucleus of the proximal tubular cells of the kidney. No nephrotoxicity was described even for the higher U level in drinking water and a reinforcement of the pro/anti-oxidative system with an increase in glutathione is observed. The study of U internal contamination in Nrf2 deficient mice, a cytoprotective transcription factor involved in the anti-oxidative defense has been realized. U accumulate more in Nrf2 -/- mice than in WT mice but the biologic effects of U on the pro/anti-oxidative system did not seem to implicate Nrf2. At the cell level, a correlation between U distribution in HepG2 cells and the biological effects on this system is observed after U exposure at low concentrations. Soluble distribution of U is observed in cell nucleus. The apparition of U precipitates is correlated to the establishment of the adaptive mechanisms overtime which are overwhelmed and lead to a cellular toxicity at higher U level. In conclusion, these results suggest that the reinforcement of pro/anti-oxidative system could be an adaptive mechanism after chronic exposure at low U concentration.