The thesis works have enabled us to quantify the containment efficiency of two devices (a microbiological safety cabinet and classical fume hood) during the simultaneous production of nanoaerosols and a tracer gas (SF6). Two different measurement techniques were used: the first based on the measurement of particle size distribution of the escaping aerosol (SMPS-C), the other based on the detection of fluorescence of samples (sodium fluorescein used as marker of nanoparticles). The results have established a strong correlation between the behavior of a nanoaerosols and the tracer gas when they are emitted simultaneously in a ventilated enclosure. More, we observed that tracer gas back diffusion was almost twice greater than for nanoparticles back diffusion in all the tested configurations. The deposit and the agglomeration present in the case of transport of a cloud of nanoparticles can explain these differences in the overall level of containment. However, this observation does not guarantee sufficient protection since there is no specific reference value for nanoparticle exposure. It is useful to observe the guidelines that have been defined in many INRS publications or through IRSN studies.In addition to these experimental studies, the test-rig developed at INRS has been numerically simulated to validate an eulerian transport and deposition model implemented in a CFD code for modeling the behavior of a nanoaerosol. Numerical and experimental results are concordant; orders of magnitude for the achieved containment levels are comparable.