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La dosimétrie cytogénétique de l'accident d'irradiation


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P. VOISIN, M. BENDERITTER, V. CHAMBRETTE, M. CLARAZ, M. DELBOS, V. DURAND, N. PAILLOLE, L. ROY and I. SOROKINE-DURM Radioprotection 2002, Vol. 37, n° 1, pages 27 à 40

Résumé

The cytogenetics biodosimetry of accidental overexposure. For a suspicion of accidental exposure to the ionizing radiations, the determination of the dose received by means of biological parameters is a significant part of the therapeutic strategy, in complement of the clinical signs and physical dosimetry. The scoring of the unstable chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes remains the reference method. The preparation of the biological samples depends however on the goal to reach, the precise expertise of few irradiations or the rapid sorting in the event of a large-scale accident. An adaptation can be necessary in case of heterogeneous or past exposure. In spite of this robustness and these adaptations, the conventional cytogenetics remains a tedious, time-consuming technique, reserved to specialized personnel. The scoring of the micronuclei in the binucleated lymphocytes can constitute a credible alternative to the dicentrics assay, apparently easier and quicker. From the experience gained by the IPSN these last years on the expertise of irradiation suspicions, the purpose of this paper is to draw up a brief technical assessment of these various approaches such as adapted to suspicions of recent overexposure.